is social policy devised?
comes from the identification of, and aims to have an effect on:
occur in terms of politics, economics, demographics: Norms and values and
their affects on the societal structures: For example, divorce is not just
a breakdown of two people in a relationship, but also a reflection of the
socially determined context of laws and norms. Issues must, therefore, be
understood in terms of wider factors and responses (in the control sense)
are made to stop norms altering or (in the liberation sense) change the
norms to suit the group.
impetus behind social policy can often be to counteract social problems.
Social problems could be the misuse of drugs (Tackling Drugs Together
1996), poverty (Social Exclusion Unit 1999) or unemployment (New Deal
1997). The temptation for plaster therapy can occur, without redressing
cause – little belief in prevention methodology. Government ideology is
critical; religious impact is often a consideration: example, an ideology
that suggests homosexuality is deviant will therefore deem homosexuality
to be a social problem. In most cases, the definition’ of a social
problem is not value-free and is usually ideology-driven.
focused on different groups in society. This could be older people, young
men, or ex-offenders. However, this is formulated around the other two
motivations behind social policy. For example, it may take a ‘social
problem’ or ‘social issue’ to bring to light the needs of gay young
men. Question marks arise with social group policy: spreading resources,
integration vs. segregation, and nationalism vs. pluralism. (See, for
example, Parekh 2000).
Alcock, P. (ed.) (2000) The Students Companion to Social Policy,
Ideological Perspectives on Welfare/Social Intervention
- fits between reluctant collectivists and Marxists. Three central values:
equality, freedom and fellowship, two derivative values: democratic
participation (equality and freedom) and humanitarianism (equality and
case for equality: social integration, economic efficiency, natural
justice and individual self-regulation.
for social integration creates a climate of shared norms: less deviance
from shared norms or a sense of belonging. In the case of Owusu, K. (2000)
the double consciousness of those outside the ‘norms’ accurately
describes how deviation can occur when people are oppressed or rejected
from common goals. Again, this relates to identity and the creation of a
pluralist perspective on state intervention. Overall, FS believe that this
will protect social order – belonging represses rebellion.
for economic efficiency; production of cake for the few, before bread for
all – responding to demand prior to need is ineffective – market
forces? Waste of labor talent? The free market is designed often to pursue
wealth with relative economic freedom. This can have implications for the
resources that are actually needed and indeed, the regulation of
for natural injustice: denial of natural rights – distribution of
educational services, accidents at birth (creating a better opportunity by
default for certain groups in society)
– parental income etc. The assumption behind this case is that
all human beings should have rights from birth. Socialism, therefore, is
concerned more with equality of outcome over equality of
state intervention, individual to make choices about “buying”
social values: freedom, individualism and inequality. “We take freedom
of the individual, or perhaps the family, as our ultimate goal in judging
social arrangements” (Friedman in George & Wilding 1985:19).
Negatively, this provokes an absence of coercion. Greater freedom can
result in the under- serving of others, opening pushing up competition for
resources. Prima facie claim to freedom; see Functionalist perspectives
that enforce this ideology. Interdependency with the market system will
make freedom a principle achievement. It prevents the interference of
others on the individual, but can isolate those who are oppressed. Capital
ideology is principally concerned with stabilizing the market economy and
ensuring control, status quo.
is Ideology an important context within which to study this discipline?
is the starting point of a social policy discussion. Example of a social
policy/legislation starts at the basis of a belief of what is ‘good’
or what is ‘right’ for society, and social policy is the method used
to transport this to the masses.
example, it can be argued that the social policy initiatives targeted at
youth work increase during times of ‘perceived social problems’ such
as low youth employment, high pregnancies among young people.
the event of a very negative legislative base, we can examine the laws
that prevent ‘the promotion of homosexuality’ in schools and other
educational institutes. This law is known as "Section 28".
for Section 28:
ideology: The Capitalist ideology requires the family to be a strong
starting base for individual freedom, ergo man works; woman brings up
that fits outside of the economic norm will be labeled deviant. Deviance
can result in capital and economic questions about the distribution of
Homosexual becomes a second-class citizen under this ideology. In order to
re-enforce this label theory, legislation is designed to support the
economic ideology based on myths that support psychological issues
of disgust, fear and the unknown.
ideology is reinforced: blame is placed upon individuals through
legislating against their deviance. The person becomes a product of
inequality and therefore can be condemned for not participating fully in
Wood, September 2001
on the site:
POLICY & ASYLUM SEEKERS by Jay Patel
HOMOPHOBIA? by Jason Wood