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Models of Community Work Practice

  Strategy Main role/title of worker Examples of work/agencies Key texts
Community Care Cultivating social networks and voluntary services. Developing self-help concepts. Organizer / Volunteer Work with older people, persons with disabilities, children under 5 years old Beresford & Croft (1986); Heginbotham (1990); Mayo (1994)
Community organisation Improving co-ordination between different welfare agencies Organizer / Catalyst / Manager Councils for Voluntary Service, Racial Equality Councils, Settlements Adamson et al. (1988); Dearlove (1974); Dominelli (1990)
Community development Assisting groups to acquire the skills and confidence to improve quality of life. Active participation. Enabler / Neighbourhood Worker / Facilitator Community groups, Tenants groups, Settlements Association of Metropolitan Authorities (1993); Barr (1991)
Social/community planning Analysis of social conditions, setting of goals and priorities, implementing and evaluating services and programmes Enabler / Facilitator Localities undergoing redevelopment Marris (1987); Twelvetrees (1991)
Community education Attempts to bring education and community into a closer and more equal relationship Educator / Facilitator Community schools/colleges, 'compensatory education', Working class/feminist adult education Allen et al. (1987); Allen & Martin (1992); Freire (1970, 1972, 1976, 1985); Lovett (1975); Lovett et al. (1983); Rogers (1994)
Community action Usually class-based, conflict-focused direct action at local level Activist Squatting movement, welfare rights movement, resistance against planning and redevelopment, tenant's action Craig et al. (1982); Jacobs & Popple (1994); Lees & Mayo (1984)
Feminist community work Improvement of women's welfare, working collectively to challenge and eradicate inequalities suffered by women Activist / Enabler / Facilitator Women's refuges, Women's health groups, Women's therapy centres Barker (1986); Dixon et al. (1982); Dominelli (1990, 1994); Flynn et al. (1986)
Black and anti-racist community work Setting up and running groups that support the needs of Black people. Challenging racism. Activist / Volunteer Racial Equality Councils and Commission for Racial Equality funded projects Ohri et al. (1982); Sivanandan (1976,1990); Sondhi (1982,1994)
From: Popple, K. (1995) Analysing Community Work - Its theory and practice, Buckingham: Open University Press. See chapter 5 for models of community work.

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