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Title Charting the Development of Multi-Ethnic Britain
Author Shahid Ashrif
Key Concepts Oppression, Anti-oppressive Practice, Racism


I have affectionate and vivid memories of growing up under the care of my paternal grandfather. As a young boy and then a teenager, I resented the interruption of entertaining programmes to tune into television and radio news broadcasts, and the constant political commentary supplied by my grandfather. It was only in adulthood that I came to appreciate this commonality of experiences among many Black activists. This informal learning would prove instructive in later years.  

By the time the media covered the uprisings of the 1980s and the battles over Kenneth Baker’s History National Curriculum, like some of my friends and colleagues, I was actively involved in the struggles for racial equality and justice. (It is also worth noting that almost every local authority’s equal opportunities policy was written after the uprisings that shook thirty cities and towns across Britain.) The Black perspectives appearing in the sociology literature between the late 1970s and mid-1980s, were inspiring and often ground-breaking.  

Working with Black teenagers/young adults today, and teaching at De Montfort University I have noticed that the majority of young people have little knowledge or understanding of battles fought, or difficulties endured to reach where we are today as Black communities or as a multi-ethnic nation. Teaching core modules of ‘anti-oppressive practice’ for the Masters or BA in Youth & Community work is problematic. It assumes schools/colleges have given students an understanding of slavery, colonialism and the history of Black immigration to Britain. Not only do significant numbers of students not posses such knowledge, but Black student still complain about the racist attitudes of some of the White students. The expertise and experience of Black lecturers is marginalised and they frequently receive differential treatment compared to White lecturers. 

Many young people and adults alike take for granted that they can purchase chilies, coriander or sweet potato in local supermarkets. It is noticeable that there are more Black people employed in a wider range of occupations. However, in these amnesic times, when some people are trying to re-invent the wheel, regards racial equality, we must not forget that racism is very much alive and doing well in Britain. The beast of racism is not so much facing extinction as evolving newer and often subtler guises but some of its behaviour is readily recognisable.  

Black pupils appear to be disciplined by teachers more harshly than their white counterparts for similar offences (Smithers 2001). Many of Britain's schools are 'institutionally racist', according to Ofsted, which cited evidence that Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean and Gypsy Traveller children are failing to make adequate progress (Smithers & Carvel 1999). The report went on to say teachers were often guilty of promoting racial stereotyping by using out-of-date teaching materials, such as old geography textbooks with potentially offensive material. Mr. Gould, Ofsted’s head of secondary education, insisted that the vast majority of teachers in schools were not 'intentionally racist' but that there were features and attitudes within some schools which put ethnic minority pupils at a disadvantage. He cited evidence that some teachers had generally lower expectations of such pupils than they did of their White counterparts. (- Now where have we heard that before!) The report urged schools and education authorities to counter racial harassment and stereotyping. Nigel de Gruchy, general secretary of the National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers, (not surprisingly) said the accusation of institutional racism was outrageous and foolish. He, like Doug McAvoy claimed most teachers were not intentionally racist (Smithers & Carvel 1999). Older readers might recognise these accusations and the reactions to them as familiar. The only difference is that Ofsted somewhat belatedly has given itself ‘antiracist’ credentials.  

Britain's African-Caribbean and Asian communities were being bypassed by the Government's welfare to work programme, according to a new report by the Social Exclusion Unit. The Social Exclusion Unit cited evidence showing White applicants were three times more likely than Asians with equivalent job applications to get job interviews (Wintour & Wazir 2000). Black men are up to five times as likely to be unemployed as white men, according to government figures which suggest that ethnic minorities face widespread discrimination looking for jobs. Among women, the worst affected are those of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin, nearly five times as likely as white women to be unemployed (Denny 2001). Furthermore, the Metropolitan police’s stop and search behaviour is now hitting Asians in a disproportionate manner (Hopkins 1999). Most students find work quickly after leaving university regardless of where they study, but African/African-Caribbean and Asian graduates still face discrimination from employers, according to an official report (Woodward 2001). Chris Myant, spokesman for the CRE, is reported as saying: "The old argument that black and Asian people don't get jobs because they don't have skills is masking a degree of discrimination in the area of skilled work which is particularly pernicious."  

The experience of Black communities from the 1950s to the present is that they have been expected to fit in. From the beginning, Black people have made difficult personal sacrifices like removing turbans, wearing skirts, not speaking in their mother tongue - to accommodate White people’s prejudices. Despite these accommodations, discrimination in employment and hostility on the streets has continued unabated. While recent years have seen a re-assertion of ethnic identities among sections of the Black community, asserting that identity in the workplace is still problematic. It has been the experience of many Asian women that wearing saris or shalwar kameez affects how many White people speak to them. Over the years, Black workers have learned to keep a low profile and to draw the minimum of attention to themselves. In their desire to fit in, some Black people have anglicised their names, or more often than not, had their names anglicised by White co-workers, who claim difficulty in pronouncing ‘foreign’ names. Names are intimately connected to one’s identity and it is insensitive to attempt to change a person’s name when his/her identity is constantly being marginalised or attacked in wider society. This is not to deny the fact that some Black people have attempted to deny their ethnic identity in order to fit in. Hacker confirms the experience of Black workers when he says:

It is not easy buckling down to a job when you have to expend so much of your energy contriving a ‘white’ personality – or at least the appearance of one – so as to put your white workmates at ease. Nor is it easy to establish one’s authority, since simply having a black face raises doubts in many white minds. (Hacker 1995) 

Workers who assert their Black identity, rebuff challenges to their personal dignity or those who step outside the compliant role expected of them by White people, face marginalisation and sometimes hostility and possible disciplinary action. When managers wish to criticise a Black worker whose quality and quantity of work is beyond reproach, they resort to the very subjective and often suspect approach of criticising the style or tone of the person. This criticism is particularly meted out to those who question or challenge the organisation’s procedures or practices. It is the experience of Black workers that managers use this criticism to deny promotion, harass, intimidate and sometimes discipline Black workers. (Women experience similar attitudes.) When Black workers can no longer tolerate the pressure this causes, they resign or are coerced into resigning from their posts. 

There is the need for an accessible history of Black struggles in Britain during the last fifty years. It is important and instructive for students to learn how Britain as a nation came to be where it is today. This recent history is even more important in the light of the compulsory teaching of citizenship. Citizenship implies all individuals having equal rights and equal treatment. Critics like me, see the current approach to teaching about citizenship and civic responsibilities as a form of social control, emphasising responsibilities more than rights. 

There is, then always a politics of official knowledge, a politics that embodies conflict over what some regard as simply neutral descriptions of the world and what others regard as elite conceptions that empower some groups while disempowering others (Apple 1996: 23). (original emphasis)

It is hoped that the timelines provided in this article (- one generic and one more personalised), in the hands of concerned and effective teachers, will go some way toward filling the gap in knowledge. Through consideration of these timelines, Black and White students will learn the difficult road that has been travelled and young people will gain a better understanding of the arduous journey ahead if we are to reach our goal of a racially justice society.


  Indian Presence In Britain



The London Gazette advertised a reward of a guinea for the return of a 13 year old Indian runaway belonging to Lady Bromfield.



An advert for the sale of an Indian salve appeared in the Tatler.

Some Indian servants were bought and sold as slaves.


An advert appeared searching for a ‘East India Tawney Black’.



An advert searching for a ‘Run-away Bengal Boy’ appeared.



An advert appeared, offering an Indian slave girl as a maid to accompany any lady going to the East Indies.



An Indian from Bengal advertised for employment as a footman. Adverts by and for Indian servants became increasingly common.



Monshee Mahomet Saeed from Bengal, a teacher of Persian and Arabic advertised for pupils.



Increasing number of Lascars employed by British registered ships. They

were frequently mistreated and as a consequence they deserted despite

the difficulties of living in the alien environment of the UK.



Complaints to the East India Company about the mistreatment and

abandonment of Lascars in UK and Europe.



Two Indian boys and four Indian maids returned to UK with Warren Hastings, the former Governor General of the East India Company.


It was common for British people working in India to return to England with their Indian servants. Indian women, employed as ayahs, looked after the children of British people going to or returning from India.



An Indian conjurer was working at Bartholomew Fair.



The increasing problem of homeless and destitute Lascars in UK began

receiving a great deal of publicity.



Sake Deen Mahomed set up as ‘shampooing surgeon’ in Brighton. King George IV honoured him with the appointment of ‘Shampooing Surgeon to His Majesty George IV’.



Abdool Rheman employed by the Nepalese ambassador for some years. He finally set up business, keeping two lodging houses for Lascars.



Raja Rammohan Roy, political activist, poet, philosopher, reformer and

journalist, was the first Brahman to visit London.



Sake Deen Mahomed’s book on his treatments had its 3rd edition.



British Indian Society formed for bettering the condition of Indians in the




Jhulee Khan earned his living playing the fiddle, hornpipes and singing English songs.


James Abdoolah, from Bombay, worked as a servant to a major of the Bombay Artillery.



Dwarkanath Tagore (- grandfather of the great Bengali poet R. Tagore-)

visited UK and agitated on behalf of India.



Ameen Adeen, from Bombay, worked for a while at Harley House, London, as part of the retinue of the Queen of Oudh.



A.M. Bose studied mathematics at Cambridge University and became the

first Indian to gain a first class in the mathematics tripos.



Syed Abdoolah, Professor of Hindustani at University College London. He

was also involved in the welfare of the Indian community.


Indians engaged in various forms of street trading and some begging. There were also street musicians and street herbalists like Dr. Bonkanki.



Maharaja Duleep Singh, son of the founder of the Sikh kingdom, came to

UK as fifteen a year old. He lived on an allowance provided by the East

India Company who had taken control of the Punjab.


The destruction of the Sikh Kingdom by the British led to the emigration of

Sikhs from the Punjab over the coming years – some would eventually

find their way to the UK or Canada.



Dadabhai Naoroji first came to UK as a partner in the Indian Cama & Company which set up in London with a branch in Liverpool.


He set up the London Zoroastrian Association.



Sir Ratan Tata, who lived in Twickenham established Tata and Company

in Manchester and London. (Tata would eventually become one of the

leading companies in India.)



Francis Kaudery, from Goa, worked in the Royal Sovereign in Shadwell, which catered for Lascars.



Eight Indian seamen died of cold and hunger in London. The coroner said

he had held 40 such inquests in the past few years.



The Religious Society of Zoroastrians founded. They acquired a burial ground at Woking.



Maharaja Duleep Singh bought Elveden hall, on the border of Norfolk and

Suffolk. He and his wife became socialites and entertained the great and

the good of England.



Ganendra Mohan Tagore, Professor of Hindu Law and Bengali language

taught at University College London.



W. Chandra Bonnerjee was elected Fellow of the Royal Geographical

Society. In1902 he settled permanently in UK.



London Indian Society set up to promote Indian interests.



Roshan Khan, long time resident of Edinburgh sold savoury pies near Castle Hill.


Khuda Baksh in Cannongate, earned his living from basket making.



Joseph Slater met four Indians in Edinburgh, eighteen in Liverpool, fourteen in Manchester, three in Bristol and two in Cardiff. In Birmingham he met lodging house keepers catering for Asians.



Surendranath Banerjea came to UK to sit the Indian Civil Service exams

and returned to UK in 1874.



Nawab Nazim of Bengal lived at Pymmes House, Edmonton, London.



Lal Mohan Ghosh, qualified as a barrister and visited UK again 1879-80

and 1883 to agitate for reforms in India. He was elected president of

Congress in 1903.



Frederick Akbar Mahomed, M.B., FRCP, a grandson of Sake Deen

Mahomed, qualified as a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons. In

1877 he was elected as Medical Registrar at Guy’s Hospital. In 1880 he

was elected Fellow of Royal College of Physicians.



Shapurji Edalji, converted to Christianity and became vicar of Great

Wyrley in Staffordshire.



Aziz Ahmad lived in Hillhead district of Glasgow. He lectured on Islam and

related topics.



Five Punjabis arrived with a performing bear. After a few months they returned to India because they could not make a living in UK.



Mohammed Bux and Adbdul Karim worked at Balmoral as servants to

Queen Victoria. Abdul Karim, known as ‘munshi’ taught the Queen

Hindustani as well as the religions and customs of India.



The first mosque in Britain opened in Woking, London.



Cornelia Sorabji was the first ever woman law student at a British

university, namely, Oxford.



Dr. Pran Gotla worked as a physician in London. He was an influential of

Parsi community in London in 1920s and 1930s.



Ali Buksh and his younger brother worked as oculist in Swansea.



Dadabhai Naoroji elected as Independent Liberal MP for Finsbury Central

(London). He was the first Black member of Parliament.



M.M. Bhownaggree elected as Tory MP for Bethnal Green (London).



R.C. Dutt, lecturer in Indian history at London University. He wrote books on economics, economic history, ancient Indian civilisation as well historical and other novels.



Dr. K.M. Pardhy in 1904, became House Surgeon at Royal Cornwall

Infirmary in Truro. In 1910 he was elected as Fellow of the Royal College

of Surgeons. He played hockey for Cornwall, and cricket and tennis for

other English clubs. In1910 he won the gold medal for wrestling in

Midlands championships.



Shyamaji Krishnavarma founded the Indian Sociologist monthly journal. He launched the Indian Home Rule.



Vinayak Damodar Savarkar founded the Free India Society. He took over

the management of India House after Krishnavarma left.



Madan Lal Dhingra, from Punjab shot Sir Wm. Curzon Wyllie dead. His written note made it clear he had committed the act for ‘revenge for the inhuman hangings and deportations of patriotic Indian youths…As a Hindoo I felt that to wrong my country is an insult to God.’ 



Bal Gangadhar Tilak came to UK, as a propagandist for the Indian cause.



Satyendra Prasanno was appointed to the House of Lords as Baron Sinha

of Raipur. He piloted the 1919 Government of India Act through the Lords.

He was awarded the freedom of the city of London in 1919. In 1926 he

was appointed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.



Shapurji Saklatvala became the first Indian Labour MP in Battersea North.



During the 1920s and 1930s, many Sikhs from Punjab arrived in the UK.

Many took up door-to-door selling of hosiery, knitwear and woollens. They

were a familiar site in the Midlands, Glasgow, Peterborough and London.



The first Indian Workers’ Association was set up in Coventry. The IWAs

set up around Britain were to flourish again in the 1950s as more Indians

arrived in the UK.



Chuni Lal Katial, was elected the first Indian mayor, in Finsbury, London. He was an alderman and councillor for Finsbury and was awarded the freedom of Finsbury.



Udham Singh was hanged for executing Sir Michael O’Dwyer who had

presided over the massacre at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar in 1919.



Noor Inayat Khan was infiltrated into occupied France as a spy. She was captured by the Gestapo and executed. She was posthumously awarded the George Cross and the Croix de Guerre for her bravery.



Dr. D.R. Prem was elected Labour councillor in Birmingham.



The first wave of migration to UK slowed due to a mild recession. Indian

and Pakistani governments imposed emigration restrictions.



Indian government lifted its restrictions on emigration.



Pakistani Workers’ Association set up.



Jagmohan Joshi set up the umbrella organisation Co-ordinating Committee Against Racial Discrimination (CCARD).


The first important ‘immigrant’ strike occurred at Courtauld’s in Preston. Something similar happened at Rockware Glass in Southall, London. Woolf Rubber Company experienced something similar.



First of the Race Relations Acts passed, and was first used against Michael X (a Black political activist) for incitement to racial hatred.



Asian worker go on strike at Coneygre Foundry in Tipton and again the

following year due to low pay and lack of promotion.



The Immigration Act passed specifically to keep out the large numbers of British passport holding Asian refugees from East Africa. The UK government attempted to persuade India to take these British citizens. The UK government made no attempt to fight for compensation for these British Asians.



Paki-bashing became commonplace. Enoch Powell’s ‘rivers of blood’ speech incited further hostility against Black people.



A number of Asians murdered by racists. The UK media generally ignores

these murders.



Asian community leaders and organisations pre-occupied with the resettlement of refugee from Idi Amin’s Uganda. (In sharp contrast to the post-war Polish resettlement plan, the UK government made no concerted plans to resettle these refugees. Around this time, Leicester took out newspaper advert in an attempt to disuade the refugees from settling in the city.)



Indian workers go on strike at Mansfield Hosiery Mills in Loughborough for higher wages and better promotion prospects.



Asians go on strike in Cash Lawn Mills, Mansfield and Malmic Lace in Nottingham.


Strike at Perivale Gutterman, yarn factory in Southall, and the management tried to set Indians against Pakistanis.



Strike in Imperial Typewriters in Leicester.



Grunwick strike in London. This strike comprised mostly of women from East Africa. It received much media coverage because of the implications around picketing and the law but the ‘race’ and gender dimension of the strike received little coverage.



Gurdip Singh Chaggar, an 18 year old was stabbed to death in Southall. The Asian community organised and Asian youths became radicalised. In due course, politicised Asian youths would be in the front-line, defending their communities from racist attacks, because of lack of action by the police.


The Race Relations Act 1976 passed. Some of the weaknesses of the previous act were corrected.



National Front marched through Southall protected by 2,756 police. Blair

Peach, a White antiracist beaten to death. No one was charged with his




Uprisings the media called riots, exploded all over the UK. Starting in Brixton, they spread to Southall, Leicester, Birmingham etc. Black youth complained of police harassment and high unemployment.



Streets across many cities again explode in rebellion.



Keith Vaz elected as MP in Leicester East.



British Crime Survey suggested 32,000 violent assaults and 26,000 acts of violence were racially motivated.



Eight Asians murdered in separate racist killings.



Fiaz Mirza, Saied Ahmed and Ali Ibrahim were killed in separate racially motivated acts.


Stephen Lawrence was also murdered in the same year. (Stephen’s death was to have far reaching consequences following the outcomes of the Lawrence Inquiry in 1999. The inquiry led to an official recognition of institutional racism and amendment of the Race Relations Act 1976.)



Bradford Asian youths riot, rebelling against policing. Issues of

unemployment and lack of academic qualifications compound the issue.


The timeline above deals with a more than 300 years of history, demonstrating the long historical links between Indians and Britain. Under colonialism there was more traffic between India and Britain. It is also worth drawing attention to fact that during both World War 1 and World War 2, India contributed significant numbers of soldiers to fight on behalf of Britain. (It is reckoned that during WW2, some two million Indians fought for Britain and significant numbers earned awards for bravery.) It is also important to realise that during WW2 the diversion of food supplies from India to feed British troops had repercussions for Indians who experienced famine. (Not for the first time during colonial rule, famines were caused by policies of the British.) The attitudes of the British public towards the Indians (and other Black colonial subjects) in Britain changed dramatically during the war periods, but the old hostilities returned when the wars ended.

The immigration of people from the Indian subcontinent in significant numbers occurred from the late 1950s till about the mid-1970s. To assist a better understanding of the impact of migration upon individuals and families, set out below is a timeline for one of the early immigrants to Britain. Atta Muhammed Ashrif was one of the band of early migrant workers to arrive and work in the 1920s as door-to-door salesmen, selling hosiery, knitwear and woollens. By examining and reflecting upon his life and that of his family, one can gain insight into the difficulties faced. Early migrants often felt entirely dislocated from everything that was familiar – there were language barriers and hardships in maintaining family ties. Many Black migrants (including African-Caribbeans) were young and single and their fraternisation with indigenous women often caused friction and resentment among White men. (The concept of miscegenation has a long history and its legacy is still with us.) Difficulties in obtaining culturally appropriate foodstuffs, meeting spiritual and religious needs, finding employment and housing – all were hardships to be overcome. The success story is that many of these hardships were overcome, but the struggles continue.   


Timeline for Atta Muhammed Ashrif



Atta Muhammed Ashrif born, January 2nd to a farmer in Madarpura, Ludhiana, Punjab.



A.M. Ashrif marries Sarah.



Eldest son, Ibrahim born 17th August in Madarpura.



A.M. Ashrif makes his way from the Punjab to Calcutta to catch a ship to Britain. Since he has insufficient money for the journey, he works his passage on board a merchant ship. He jumps ship in Glasgow. He survives by working as door to door salesman.



A.M. Ashrif  arrives in Belfast.



Second son, Ismail born in India.



A.M. Ashrif  arrives in London. He works as market trader.



With the help of Imdad Ali Qazi, A.M. Ashrif founds the Muslim Association.



He marries an English woman, Lily (Muslim name, Zainab) in a Muslim ceremony.



A.M. Ashrif moves back to Glasgow with Zainab



He sets up Muslim Association in Glasgow.


Joins the business set up by his cousin and friend. The business in Oxford Street is called Sharif, Tanda & Ashrif.



He helps to set up the first Mosque in the Gorbals, (very near the site of

the modern Central Mosque in Glasgow.)



Son, Ibrahim comes to Glasgow to study at Allen Glen’s School.


Daughter, Khurshid born in India.


Daughter, Janet (by English wife, Zainab) is born.



World War 2 starts.


Son Ibrahim returns to India after war breaks out.



A.M. Ashrif visits India, accompanied by his business partner, Tanda.



A.M. Ashrif divorces Zainab, who subsequently remarries.



Eldest son, Ibrahim marries Hashmat Bibi.


A.M. Ashrif’s business partner Ghulam Mohammed Sharif dies.



Eldest son, Ibrahim begins studies at the Agricultural College in Lyallpur (now called Faisalabad.)



A.M. Ashrif and Tanda return to Glasgow.


World War 2 ends.



Atta Muhammed sets up a wholesale clothes business with Tanda,

known as Tanda Ashrif & Co.


The partition of India and Pakistan is presided over by the British government.


The Ashrif extended family leave ‘Indian’ Punjab to migrate to ‘Pakistani’ Punjab in the wake of violence and intimidation against and between Muslims and Sikhs/Hindus. Ibrahim’s daughter (Surriya Tasneem) of 6 months dies of smallpox in Faisalabad. The family settles permanently in Pakistan.


Ibrahim returns to agricultural college to complete his studies.



Son Ibrahim returns to Scotland to complete post graduate studies for Ph.D. at Edinburgh University.



Son Ibrahim returns to Pakistan to work for the Pakistan government in agriculture related jobs.



A.M. Ashrif accompanies his son, Ismail, daughter-in-law Amin, and Ibrahim’s eldest son, Khalid to Glasgow.



Ibrahim, his wife and two youngest sons, Shahid and Zahid move to Glasgow. Live as large extended family above the shop/warehouse in Nicholson Street.


Slowly, other migrants from Punjab (Muslims and Sikhs) begin to arrive in Glasgow. A.M. Ashrif’s business supplies the growing number of Punjabi door-to-door salesmen.         


Early migrants work as door to door salesmen, travelling to small Scottish villages by bus. A.M. Ashrif’s own son, Ismail works as a salesman.          



Unable to secure a job, son Ibrahim moves to the Gambia as an agricultural scientist. Leaves his wife and three sons with their grandfather.


A.M. Ashrif’s wife Sarah and his daughter Khurshid join the family in Glasgow. However Sarah returns to Pakistan after some 10 months because she prefers the way of life in Pakistan.



Son, Ibrahim awarded MBE by Queen for scientific research in the Gambia.



Immigration to Glasgow beginning to peak. Increasing numbers of immigrants working on the buses and on the underground.                    



Son Ibrahim works for FAO (U.N.’s Food & Agricultural Organisation), in South Korea.



Son Ibrahim returns to Glasgow to permanently join his family, from whom he has been separated for 11 years.



Ibrahim invests his savings to set up a grocery business in Glasgow, so that he can work near his family.


Ibrahim’s son, Shahid starts studies at Glasgow University.



Atta Muhammed Ashrif retires from business.


His grandson, Shahid graduates from Glasgow University with Honours.



A.M. Ashrif’s wife Sarah comes to live permanently in Glasgow. (In the past she had visited her husband for short periods and returned to Pakistan, and A.M. Ashrif had visited her in Pakistan.)



Zahid joins his father Ibrahim’s business, after working for the National Saving Bank.



A.M.Ashrif’s wife Sarah dies in her sleep.



Daughter Janet (by Zainab) dies of cancer. Due to illness and infirmity, A.M. Ashrif cannot attend the funeral. Ibrahim and Ismail attend their half-sister’s funeral.



Atta Muhammed Ashrif dies in his sleep on 24th January.

He is survived by two sons, a daughter and 11 grandchildren and several great grandchildren


References & Recommended Reading

Apple, M.W. (1996)            Cultural Politics & Education; Open University Press                       

Denny, C (2001)                         Racist firms keep black unemployment high; The Guardian : Thursday January 11

Fryer, P (1984)                          Staying Power: The History of Black people in Britain; Pluto Press

Hacker, A 1995                          Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal; New York: Ballantine Books; (revised edition)

Hopkins, N (1999)            Met stop and search 'now hitting Asians' ; The Guardian: Thursday December 16

Sivanandan, A (1986)            Asian and Afro-Caribbean Struggles in Britain; Institute of Race Relations

Smithers, R & Carvel, J (1999)            Britain's schools dubbed racist; the Guardian: Thursday March 11

Smithers, R (2001)            Punishment for black pupils appears harsher; The Guardian: Thursday March, 1

Visram, R (1986)            Ayahs, Lascars and Princes: The story of Indians in Britain 1700-1947; Pluto Press

Wintour, P & Wazir, B (2000) Job schemes bypass Asians; Guardian: Sunday January 30

Wintour, P (2000)            Whitehall mandarins ‘balking’ black staff: The Guardian, Saturday April 15

Woodward, W (2001)            University jobs figures reveal racial bias; The Guardian: Wednesday April 4

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